Key Sources

Anthony, L. . AntConc (Version 3.5.9) [Computer Software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University. 2020. Available from

Blight, David W. Frederick Douglass: Prophet of Freedom. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2018.

Douglass, Frederick and Delany, Martin R. The North Star. (Rochester, NY), 1847-1851.

Eckel, Leslie Elizabeth. “‘A Type of His Countrymen’: Douglass and Transatlantic Print Culture.” in Atlantic Citizens: Nineteenth-Century American Writers at Work in the World. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2013.

Fagan, Benjamin. “The North Star and the Atlantic 1848.” African American Review 47, no. 1 (2014): 51–67.

Foreman, P. Gabrielle and Casey, Jim, et. al. The Colored Conventions Project.

Graham, Shawn, Scott Weingart, and Ian Milligan. “Getting Started with Topic Modeling and MALLET.” Programming Historian, September 2, 2012. 

King, Shaun. “Home”,The North Star with Shaun King.

Kleinman, S., LeBlanc, M.D., Drout, M., Feng, W., and Zhang, C. Lexos v4.0. 2020.

Levine, Robert S. Martin Delany, Frederick Douglass, and the Politics of Representative Identity. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. 

Levine, Robert S. Martin R. Delany: A Documentary Reader. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2003.

Library of Congress, “About This Collection | Frederick Douglass Newspapers, 1847-1874 | Digital Collections | Library of Congress.” .

Library of Congress, “Timeline” Library of Congress.

LibreOffice, “English Dictionary”, March 1, 2020. 

McCallum, Andrew Kachites.  “MALLET: A Machine Learning for Language Toolkit.” 2002. 

Nelson, Robert K. Mining the Dispatch. 2020.

Pierce, Preston E. “Liberian Dreams, West African Nightmare: The Life of Henry W. Johnson Part One.” Rochester History 66, no. 4 (Fall 2004).

Roberts, Neil.  Gilroy, Paul. Boxill, Bernard. Kohn, Margaret.  Davis, Angel Y. and Gooding-Williams, Robert. A Political Companion to Frederick Douglass. Political Companions to Great American Authors. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky, 2018.

Roberts, Timothy Mason. Distant Revolutions: 1848 and the Challenge to American Exceptionalism. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2009.

Sinclair, Stéfan and Rockwell, Geoffrey. Voyant Tools. 2016.

Smith, Ben. “He Redefined ‘Racist.’ Now He’s Trying to Build a Newsroom.” The New York Times, March 21, 2021, sec. Business.

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo [Exchange copy], February 2, 1848; Perfected Treaties, 1778-1945; Record Group 11; General Records of the United States Government, 1778-1992; National Archives.

Van Rossum, G., & Drake, F. L. Python 3 Reference Manual. Scotts Valley, CA: CreateSpace, 2009.